An oily, flammable liquid that occurs naturally in deposits, usually beneath the surface of the earth; it is also called crude oil. It consists principally of a mixture of hydrocarbons , with traces of various nitrogenous and Sulphurous compounds. During the past 600 million years incompletely decayed plant and animal remains have become buried under thick layers of rock. It is believed that petroleum consists of the remains of these organisms but it is the small microscopic plankton organism remains that are largely responsible for the relatively high organic carbon content of fine-grained sediments like the Chattanooga shale which are the principle source rocks for petroleum.
Little use other than as lamp fuel was made of petroleum until the development of the gasoline engine and its application to automobiles, trucks, tractors, and airplanes. Today the world is heavily dependent on petroleum for motive power, lubrication, fuel, dyes, drugs, and many synthetics.
Natural mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons found issuing from the ground or obtained from specially driven wells. The composition of natural gas varies in different localities. Its chief component, methane, usually makes up from 80% to 95%, and the balance is composed of varying amounts of ethane, propane, butane and other hydrocarbon compounds. Although commonly associated with petroleum deposits, it also occurs separately in sand, sandstone, and limestone deposits. Some geologists theorize that natural gas is a byproduct of decaying vegetable matter in underground strata, while others think it may be primordial gases that rise up from the mantle. Because of its flammability and high calorific value, natural gas is used extensively as an illuminant and a fuel.
LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS
LPG is a mixture of gases, chiefly propane and butane, produced commercially from petroleum and stored under pressure to keep it in a liquid state. The boiling point of liquefied petroleum gas varies from about -44°C to 0°C (-47°F to 32°F), so that the pressure required to liquefy it is considerable and the containers for it must be of heavy steel. When prepared as fuel, LPG is largely propane; common uses are for cooking and heating and lighting. It is also used for powering automotive vehicles (although not legal in many countries). LPG is an attractive fuel for internal-combustion engines because it burns with little air pollution and little solid residue.
Sulphur is found in group VIa of the periodic table . Solid Sulphur occurs principally in three forms, all of which are brittle, yellow in color, odorless, tasteless, and insoluble in water. It is a chemically active element and forms many compounds, both by itself (sulfides) and in combination with other elements. It is part of many organic compounds. Sulphur burns in air with a blue flame forming Sulphur dioxide.
Sulphur is used in black gunpowder, matches, and fireworks; in the vulcanization of rubber; as a fungicide and insecticide; and in the treatment of certain skin diseases. The principal use of Sulphur is in the preparation of its compounds. The most important Sulphur compound is Sulphuric acid . Other important compounds include Sulphur dioxide, used as a bleaching agent, disinfectant, and refrigerant; sodium bisulfite, used in paper manufacture; carbon disulfide, an important organic solvent; hydrogen sulfide, Sulphur trioxide, and thionyl chloride, used as reagents in chemistry; the numerous sulfate compounds; and sulfa drugs.
Solvent oil is one of the 5 major oil products closely related to people's daily life. Its application sectors also have a constant expansion. The variety with the greatest consumption is coating solvent oil (usually called paint solvent oil). There are also extensive uses in cooking oil, printing ink, leather, pesticide, insecticide, rubber, cosmetic, perfume, chemical polymerization, medical and IC-component cleaning sectors.